English II @ EAWR

Ms. Gardner & Mrs. Timmins

Haitian Massacre of Creole White 1804

The  1804 Haiti Massacre was an ethnic cleansing which was carried out on the remaining white population of French Creoles on Haiti territory.  It was ordered by Jean-Jacques Desalines.  It was carried out from early February 1804 until the 22nd of April 1804and resulted in the death between 3000 to 5000 people of all ages and gender.




Jean-Jacques Dessalines was the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1801 constitution.  initially reguarded as Governor-Gerneral.  Dessalines served as an officer in the French army when the colony was trying to withstand Spanish and British incursions.  Later he rose to become a commander in the revolt against France.  After the betrayal and capture of Toussaint Loucerture in 1802, Dessalines became the leader of the revolution.  In 1804, Desslines was chosen by a council of generals to assume the officer of Governor-General.  In September 1804, he proclaimed himself Emperor and was assassinated in 1806.





Haiti is a Carribean country.  Haiti is regional, historical, and ethno-lingustic postion is unique for several reasons.  It was the first independent nation of Latin America.  Haiti is the most populous full member-state of the Caribbean Community.  It is the poorest country in the Americas as measured by the Human Development Index.  Political violence has occured regulary throughout its history, leading to government instability.  The island has had a history of destructive earthquakes.  It was a 7.0 magnitude earthquake.  The highest reliable death count was about 220,000 people.  The Haiti government’s were higher.




Dessalines did not hide the massacre from the world.  An official proclaimation of April 8, 1804, he started, “We have given these true cannibals war of war, crime for crime, outrage for outrage.  Yes, I have saved my country, I have avenged America.”  He referred the massacre as an act of national authority.  Dessalines reguarded the elimination of the white Haitians an act of political necessity, as they were reguarded as a threat to the peace between the black and colored.  It also was reguarded as an act of vengeance.  However, he was eager to assure that Haiti was not a threat to other nations and that is sought to establish friendly relations also to nations where slavery was still allowed.








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